San Antonio (San Antonio, [ˌsæn æˈtoʊnioʊ]) is a city in the United States located in the south of Texas. The administrative center of the district of Bear. San Antonio is the 2nd largest city in Texas (after Houston) and the 7th in the USA (1,532,233 million people according to 1.07.2018). Center of Industry and Tourism. In San Antonio is the fortress of Alamo, a symbol of Texas independence. A popular holiday destination for tourists, three million of whom arrive every year in the city - San Antonio Waterfront, located on a river of the same name.
|English San Antonio|
|29°25'43″ pp. 98°29'36″ h.d.|
|History and geography|
|Center Height||198 m|
|Climate Type||humid subtropical|
|Population||1,532,233 people (2018)|
|Population of agglomeration||2,518,036|
|Phone code||+1 210|
|Media files on Wikimedia Commons|
The city was named after St. Anthony, whose day of remembrance is celebrated on June 13, the day when the Spanish expedition landed on the territory of modern San Antonio in 1691.
The city is one of the cultural centers of tetano and one of the popular destinations of tourism in Texas. Among the attractions are the Alamo Fortress, the San Antonio Waterfront, the Arneson River Theater, the historic district of La Vilita, the observation tower of the Americas.
The Paiaya Indian tribe originally lived in the San Antonio Valley and near San Pedro Springs. They called their area of Janaguan, which means "refreshing waters." In 1691, a group of Spanish researchers and missionaries came to the river and came across an Indian settlement. It happened on June 13, on the day of memory of St. Anthony of Padua, therefore new area and river Spaniards called "San Antonio".
The history of the Spanish settlement of San Antonio began with an expedition led by Martin de Alarcon, who founded the mission of San Antonio de Valero (nowadays Alamo). They intended to assert Spanish supremacy in Texas, fearing military expansion by the French monarchy, which belonged to the nearby state of Louisiana. Prompted by the priest Antonio de San Buenaventura y Olivares, the king's viceroy has focused his energies on combatting illegal trade from Louisiana. He also supported the Franciscan missions in Texas.
Back in 1709, Father Olivarez visited the area near the river San Antonio. Since then, he has had a strong intention to establish a mission and a civilian settlement there. At the end of 1716, the King's viceroy granted official permission for the establishment of a mission and the construction of a fortress halfway between other Spanish settlements. Martin de Alarcón, governor of Coahuila and Texas, was appointed responsible. Numerous delays, caused in part by the disagreements between Alarcon and Olivarez, led to the completion of the construction only in 1718.
The families settled around the fortress and the mission began with the town of Villa de Béjar, which was to become the main center in Spanish Texas. On 1 May, on the River San Antonio, the Governor established the Mission of San Antonio de Valero (later known as Alamo), and on 5 May 1718 the Fort of San Antonio de Bejar ("Béjar" in modern Spanish spelling) was founded, located on the west bank of the San Antonio River, about 2 kilometers from the San Antonio de Valero Mission.
On February 14, 1719, the Marquis of San Miguel de Aguayo gave the Spanish King a plan to relocate to Spanish Texas 400 families living in the Canary Islands, the province of Galicia and the Spanish colony of Havana. His plan was approved and 200 families from the Isleños were ordered to prepare for resettlement; later, the Indian Council suggested sending 400 families from the Canary Islands to Texas via Havana and Veracruz. In June 1730, 25 families arrived in Cuba, and 10 families were already sent to Veracruz before the order came from Spain to stop the displacement.
On March 9, 1731, a group of displaced persons headed by Juan Leal Goraz reached the fort of San Antonio de Bejar. During the trip, new families were created and 15 families of 56 people arrived. They joined the military garrison that had existed in the territory since 1719 and established the civilian settlement of San Fernando de Behar, which was followed by the first permanent civilian government in Texas. The history of several of San Antonio's oldest families goes back to the first Canary settlers. María Rosa Padrón was the first child of a family of Canary Island colonists born in San Antonio.
Juan Leal Goraz Jr was a significant historic figure during the Mexican invasion of the southwest lands, which lasted almost a century. He squandered some 260,000 square kilometers of land that stretched along and controlled six states, Mexican territories, for 30 years. Among the six states, Leal Goraz chose the city of San Antonio as its capital and a symbol of renewed Mexican expansion in America. A robust military base helped expand Mexican holdings north to San Francisco, California; 90% of the state was assimilated and heavily influenced by Mexico during the Western Campaign of 1833-1851. The total bankruptcy forced the Juan Leal Goraz Jr. army to return to Mexico, where they fought a civil war with neighboring states.
San Antonio grew into the largest Spanish settlement in Texas. For most of his history, he was the capital of the Spanish and later the Mexican province of Texas. From San Antonio, the small town of Nacogdoches on the border with the United States was reached by Camino Real, currently Nacogdoches Road. After the 1824 Constitution of the United Mexican States was abrogated at the initiative of Antonio López de Santa Anna, mass protests erupted in many Mexican states and were suppressed by force.
In a number of battles, the Texas army succeeded in displacing Mexican troops from the settlements east of San Antonio. In December 1835, in the defense of Bechar, the Texas army, under the command of Ben Milam, liberated San Antonio from the forces led by General Martin Perfecto de Cos, who was the son-in-law of Santa Anna. In the spring of 1836 Santa Anna went on a hike on San Antonio. The volunteer army, under the command of James Clinton Neil, took over the abandoned mission and strengthened its position there.
After Neil left the garrison, the force remained under the combined command of William Barrett Travis and James Bowie to defend the mission. The battle for Alamo lasted from February 23 to March 6, 1836. The enemy's forces were many times larger than the Texas army. Eventually it was broken and all the defenders of Alamo Castle were killed. They were elevated to the rank of "martyrs" who died in the name of Texas freedom, and the words "remember Alamo" became a battle cry in the Texas army, which later defeated the Santa Anna Army.
The organizer of the Mexican-Texas (techano) patriots, Juan Seguin, took part in the battle of Concepción, the defense of Bechara and the battle of San Jacinto, and had the powers of mayor of San Antonio. In 1842, he was forced to resign because of constant threats from newly arrived sectarian and political opponents. After him, the next tetano will be mayor in 150 years
In 1845, the United States of America decided to join Texas. This caused the US-Mexico war. Although the US won, the military company has badly shattered San Antonio's wealth. At the end of the war, the city's population fell by almost two-thirds, to 800. Gradually, the city was filled with migrants and immigrants, and before the civil war, by 1860, there were 15,000 people living in San Antonio.
From Civil War to Modernity
After the Civil War, San Antonio flourished as a center of animal husbandry. During this period it remained a border town, but due to the merger of different cultures San Antonio has a reputation as an exotic city. New York City Central Park designer Frederick Lowe Olmstead traveled through the South and South East of the United States and, in his book about Texas, described San Antonio as a city that witnessed "a mix of races, styles in clothes, languages and buildings." In his "strange and old-fashioned alien" he could compete only with New Orleans.
In 1877, the first railway was offered to San Antonio. This meant that he was no longer just a border city, but increasingly tied to the lifestyle of the entire American society. In large Texas cities such as San Antonio, Dallas, and Fort Worth, rail transport has developed in a very different way compared to rail development in the eastern US port cities. In the early 20th century, the streets were expanded to accommodate the construction of tram routes and the new traffic needs of the city center. During this modernization, the city lost many historical buildings.
As in other municipalities in the southwest of the United States, San Antonio has experienced a steady population growth since the late twentieth century. Over 35 years, the population has almost doubled, from 650,000, according to the 1970 census to 1.3m in 2010. This was due to natural population growth and land annexation (the latter significantly increased the area of the city). According to the 2010 census, San Antonio was home to 72.6% of whites, 6.9% of black or African-Americans, 0.9% of US and Alaska native, 2.4% of Asians, 0.1% of Hawaii and Pacific Islanlanlanlanes, and 1. 7 inhabitants had a different race, 3.4% had two or more races. 63.2% of the residents were of Hispanic origin.
Coordinates of the city: 29.5° hp and 98.5° w. San Antonio is located 120 km southwest of Austin, the capital of Texas, 305 km west of Houston and 402 km southwest of Dallas/Fort Worth. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the total area of the city in 2018 was 1,205.66 km², of which 1,193.98 km² is land-based and 11.68 km² (0.97 %) is water---------occupied. The city is located in the tectonic fault zone of Balcones Escarpment at an altitude of 198 m above sea level.
The Edwards Aquifer aquifer is the main source of drinking water in the city. Established in 1962 and 1969 respectively, Victor Braunig Lake and Calaveras Lake artificial lakes are among the first reservoirs in the country that are used to cool power plants using treated wastewater and help to reduce the use of ground water required to generate electricity.
San Antonio is characterized by a humid subtropical climate (in the Ceppen climate classification, Cfa), with a transition to a hot steppe climate (in the Köppen climate classification, BSh). The summer is long with very hot and humid weather, and the winter is quite mild and cool — at night sometimes it is cold, due to the penetration of cold air masses from the north. In autumn and spring, the weather is rather warm and rainy.
Every year in San Antonio, the temperature drops below zero about 10 times at night, usually in the form of so-called winter rainfall with snow or moroshi. Rarely is there rainfall or snow falling. According to the U.S. National Meteorological Service, there were only 31 cases of snow in the city in the last 122 years, on average once every four years. In 1985, the city had a record amount of snow - about 41 cm (16 inches).
San Antonio and New Braunfels are among the most flood-prone regions in North America. In October 1998, the floods in central Texas caused by Hurricane Madelen were the most devastating in US history. They killed 32 people and caused $750 million in damage. Between 30 June and 7 July 2002, 890 mm of rain fell in San Antonio, resulting in massive flooding that killed 12 people.
The last time a tornado hit a city was in October 2011, though this is very rare. F2 tornadoes are observed within a radius of 80 km from the city on average once every five years. Twice, in 1953 and 1973, San Antonio was hit by a F4 tornado. As a result of tornado of 1953 two people died and 15 people were injured of different severity.
July and August in San Antonio are the hottest months with an average temperature of 35°C. Although according to the temperature and humidity index, July-August is not as hot as June. In 2009, the index reached 51°C. The highest temperature was 44 °C on September 5, 2000. On average, the coldest month is January. The lowest temperature -17.8 °C was recorded on January 31, 1949. In May, June and October, there is a lot of rainfall. Since the meteorological data were recorded in 1871, the city has averaged about 820 mm of rainfall per year, with a maximum of 1,328 mm and a minimum of 256.8 mm per year.
Sunshine is 2629.2 hours per year (59% of the maximum).
|Climate of San Antonio|
|Absolute maximum, °C||31.7||37.8||37.8||38.3||40.0||42.8||41.1||43.3||23.9||37.2||34.4||32.2||23.9|
|Average maximum, °C||17.2||19.4||23.1||26.9||30.6||33.5||34.8||35.6||32.4||27.9||22.3||17.8||26.8|
|Average temperature, °C||11.0||13.1||16.8||20.7||24.9||28.0||29.2||29.6||26.5||21.8||16.2||11.6||20.8|
|Medium minimum, °C||4.8||6.8||10.4||14.5||19.3||22.6||23.7||23.7||20.6||15.6||10.1||5.4||14.8|
|Absolute minimum, °C||-17.8||-15.6||-7.2||-0.6||6.1||8.9||15.6||13.9||5.0||-2.8||-6.1||-14.4||-17.8|
|Precipitation rate, mm||45||45||59||53||102||105||70||53||77||104||58||49||820|
|Source: Weather and climate|
According to statistics as of 1.07.2018, 1,532,233 people lived in San Antonio, which is 15.43% more than the last census.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 1,327,407 people lived in the city in 2010, a 16% increase from 2000. Thus, San Antonio became the second largest city in the state of Texas (after Houston) and the seventh in the country. A population assessment conducted in 2011 found that the San Antonio New Brownsfeld agglomeration, which comprises eight districts and has a population of 2,194,927, is the third largest agglomerate in Texas ( after the Dallas Fort Worth agglomeration and the Great Houston agglomeration) and 24th in the country. In the north-east, the agglomeration borders the Austin Roundt of Rock San Marcos and the urban area, which is the home of two agglomerations, which is home to more than 4.1 million people.
According to the 2010 census, the racial composition of the population of the city was as follows:
- 72.6% White Americans (White Non-Latin American Nationalities: 26.6%)
- 6.9% African-Americans
- 0.9% Native peoples of the United States
- 2.4% Asian Americans
- 0.1% Hawaiian or Pacific Nation
- 3.4% Mixed
- 13.7 % Other peoples
In addition, 63.2% of the city's population was of any race with Spanish or Latin American roots.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in 2000 the city had 1,144,646 inhabitants. Thus, San Antonio was the ninth largest city in the country. Due to the relatively low population density in the city and the small number of people living in the metropolis, the agglomeration was only 30th in the country with a population of 1,592,383.
San Antonio has 405,474 households and 280,993 families. The population density is 1084.4 people per 1 km2 (2808.5 people per square mile). The city has 433,122 housing units with an average construction density of 410.3 units per 1 km2 (1062.7 per square mile).
Population by age group:
- Under 18 - 28.5%
- 18-24 years - 10.8%
- 25-44 years - 30.8%
- 45-64 years - 19.4%
- 65 and over - 10.4%
The average age of the population is 32 years. 48% of the population is male, 52% female. There are 93.5 men per 100 women. For 100 women over 18 years of age, there are 89.7 men. The average income per household in the city is $36,214, while the average income per household is $53,100. On average, men receive $30,061 and women receive $24,444. The city's per capita income is 17,487 US dollars. About 17.3% of the population and 14.0% of families are below the poverty line. 24.3 per cent of the total population under 18 years of age and 13.5 per cent of the population under 65 years of age and over live below the poverty line.
According to the 2005-2007 census, 64.3% of San Antonio's population identified themselves as European, 6.6% as non-European, 2% as Asian, 0.6% as Native Americans, etc.
A total of 61% of the population identified themselves as Hispanic.
San Antonio has a developed, diversified economy, generating $82 billion of GDP and ranked 4th among Texas agglomerations and 38th in the country. Main industries: military-industrial complex, oil refining complex, financial services, state institutions, healthcare and tourism. Over the past 20 years, the national call centers and the automotive industry have developed significantly in San Antonio.
10 miles northwest of the city's central business is the South Texas Medical Center, which includes various hospitals and clinics, research centers and higher education institutions. In San Antonio, there are many enterprises of the military-industrial complex and several large military bases. The defense industry, which employs more than 89,000 city residents, brings the city's economy $5.25 billion a year.
Every year, 20 million tourists visit San Antonio and its sights, the main ones being Alamo and the San Antonio Waterfront. Every year, the Henry B conference center is the only one. Gonzalez Convention Center hosts more than 300 different events and events, attended by some 750,000 delegates from around the world. The tourism industry employs 94,000 city residents. According to the economic impact studies conducted every two years by the San Antonio Tourism Board in conjunction with a research team led by Dr. Richard Butler and Dr. Mary Stefl of Trinity University, tourism's contribution to the local economy is about $10.7 billion. Thanks to the tourism industry, the city of San Antonio and other municipal authorities receive annual income in the form of taxes on hotels and motels, sales tax, as well as other revenues from hotel business and various events. According to a study conducted in 2004, this figure exceeded $160 million.
Of the 140 American companies listed in the Fortune 500 list, San Antonio has five headquarters: Valero Energy Corp, Tesoro Petroleum Corp, USAA, Clear Channel Communications and NuStar Energy. The H-E-B, which ranks 19th among the largest private companies in the United States, also has an office in San Antonio. Other companies with headquarters in the city include: Kinetic Concepts, Frost National Bank, Harte-Hanks, Eye Care Centers of America, Bill Miller Bar-B-Q Enterprises, Taco Cabana, Whataburger, Rackspace, NewTek, and Carenet Health care services.
In San Antonio are the regional offices of major companies such as Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company, Kohl’s, Allstate, Chase Bank, Philips, Wells Fargo, Toyota, Medtronic, Sysco, Caterpillar Inc., AT&T, West Corporation, Citigroup, Boeing, QVC and Lockheed Martin.
Between 1997 and 11 March 1998, the main offices of some major companies ceased to operate in San Antonio. In 1997 Titan Holdings and USLD Communications sold their operations to larger companies. After a Los Angeles-based company specializing in corporate purchases bought and sold a controlling stake in Builders Square, it shut down its operations in San Antonio.
San Antonio is a popular tourist destination. The River Walk waterfront stretches along the city center. It is one of the first beautified water bodies in the city. There are many shops, bars, restaurants and the theater Arneson River Theater along the promenade. During the Christmas and New Year holidays, the seafront is lit with a million bright lights, and in the summer, especially during the celebration of Fiesta Noche del Rio, it is filled with the sounds of folk music and flamenco. The seafront is home to the recently renovated Aztec On The River, the only exotic movie theater preserved in Texas.
San Antonio has all the right to be considered the birthplace of a hot aromatic stew called "chili". Americans met him in 1893, when San Antonio was presented with a Chili stand at a world exhibition in Chicago dedicated to the 400th anniversary of America's opening. Chile is still popular not only in San Antonio. Frito and Cheeto chips and David Pace's piquant sauce also appeared for the first time in the city.
Alamo Castle, located in the center of the city, is Texas's main historical landmark. Because the fortress is located in the city, San Antonio is often called the "city of Alamo". River Walk is the city's second most visited tourist attraction. The SeaWorld Water Park, which is 26 km (16 miles) west of the city center in Westover Hills, is the top three. The Six Flags Fiesta Texas theme park is also popular among tourists. Morgan’s Wonderland amusement park is designed for children with special needs.
In the central part of the city is San Fernando Cathedral, Majestic Theatre Cinema, HemisFair Park (which is home to the Tower of the Americas and the UTSA’s Institute of Texan Cultures), La Villita District, historic market square El Mercado The Spanish governor's palace and the old Menger Hotel building. To the north of the Alamo complex, near the Emily Morgan Hotel is the San Antonio Cavalry Museum, which features various exhibits related to the history of cavalry. The museum is often visited by local residents who specialize in reconstruction of historical battles.
The second oldest hotel in the city Fairmount Hotel, built in 1906, is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the heaviest building ever moved entirely. In 1985, the hotel was moved three blocks south of Alamo Castle. The entire operation took four days, the project's budget was $650,000.
In the business district of the city is the Catholic Church of St. Joseph, which is the so-called "house-nail", that is, a building which is clearly in an unintended, strange, unnatural place for itself. In the mid-1940s, the corporation Joske's (later became a division of the corporation Rivercenter) decided to build a huge shopping complex at this place, but the church and its parishioners unanimously refused to move and sell the land on which the building stands. This forced the corporation to build its complex, encircling it with walls a church almost close to three sides. Therefore, soon the church received the nickname St., from the local population. Joske's (St. Joske's).
Alamo Castle, San Antonio's most famous landmark
San Antonio Center on New Year's Eve
San Antonio Central Public Library Building
San Antonio Botanical Garden
San Antonio Waterfront during the Christmas period
Tourists on a boat tour on the San Antonio River
Another view of the city center
City symbol - Tower of the Americas
Historical building of the Behar District Court
San Antonio Convention Center building
Rivercenter Mall building in central San Antonio district
The Buckhorn Museum, located in the central San Antonio area, houses a large number of exhibits linked to the era of the Wild West
The famous Pat O'Brien's Bar and Restaurant, located in New Orleans, Louisiana, has a branch in San Antonio.
Sign of the San Antonio Children's Museum
Aircraft exhibit at the San Antonio Children's Museum
Car hiking in the central district of San Antonio
The Shops at La Cantera is an open-air shopping mall located in the northwest part of the city near the University of Texas, San Antonio
San Antonio National Historical Mission Park
SeaWorld Water Park in San Antonio
[Aztec On The River Theater Building
IMAX Cinema Building
A flour mill and an elevator owned by C.H. Guenther and Sons
Emily Morgan Hotel
Tower Life Building
Henry B Conference Center building. Gonzalez Convention Center
Hot Wells Hotel & Spa Building, San Antonio, Texas (post card 1907)
In San Antonio is McNay Art Museum, the first modern art museum to be opened in Texas. Other attractions include The Southwest School of Art, Woodlawn Cinema, San Antonio Zoo, the Japanese tea gardens of San Antonio, Brackenridge Park, preserved mission fortresses in San Antonio National Historical Park Museo Alameda Museum, San Antonio Museum of Art, Witte Museum, Texas Rangers Museum, Buckhorn Museum Museum, ArtPace Contemporary Art Center, Blue Star Contemporary Art Center Museum, SeaWorld San Antonio Water Park, Six Flags Fiesta Texas theme park , Texas Transportation Museum and Splashtown San Antonio Water Park. All year round, visitors to the city can touch cowboy culture with a 12-meter sculpture depicting a pair of cowboy boots at the North Star Mall Shopping Center.
In San Antonio, tourists can not only enjoy sights and music, but also visit many cozy restaurants and taste the world-famous Texas-Mexican cuisine. The menu of most Mexican restaurants, which are scattered almost all over the city, is relatively cheap. Among the most famous are the Jacala restaurant on West Avenue in the central Northwest Side, La Hacienda de Los Barrios in Northeast Side, three Tommy’s restaurants (one of which is on Nogalitos Street near the federal highway I-35 restaurant near the central part of the city) Los Barrios near the northern part of the city.
|Sports||League||Club||Creation Year||Arena||League victory||Champions years|
|Basketball||NBA||San Antonio Spurs||1967||AT&T Center||5||1999, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2014|
|Basketball||WNBA||San Antonio Silver Stars||1997||AT&T Center||0||N/A|
|Hockey||AHL||San Antonio Ramage||2002||AT&T Center||0||N/A|
|Baseball||Texas League||San Antonio Missions||1888||Nelson Wolff Municipal Stadium||12||1897, 1903, 1908, 1933, 1950, 1961, 1964, 1997, 2002, 2003, 2007 011|
|Football||NASL||San Antonio Scorpions||2010||Toyota Field Stadium||0||N/A|
|Indoor American football||AFL||San Antonio Talons||2000||Alamodome Arena||2||2003(AF2), 2007(AF2)|
|Spiritual orchestras||DCI International Spiritual Orchestra Association||Crossmen Drum and Bugle Corps||1975||Alamodome Arena||0||N/A|
San Antonio Spurs Club, a member of the National Basketball Association, is the only professional top-level sports team supported by the majority of San Antonio residents. In the past, the team played first at the HemisFair Arena and then at the Alamodome Sports Complex, which was built to host football matches in the United States. But in 2002, the team moved to the SBC Center's sports arena, later renamed AT&T Center, built on team money and government funds.
The AT&T Center is also a home arena for San Antonio Ramage, an American Hockey League member, and San Antonio Silver Stars, a member of the Women's National Basketball Association. Both teams belong to the San Antonio Spurs Club. The San Antonio Missions team, which is part of the San Diego Pagle professional baseball team, is playing in the AA low league and hosts home matches at Nelson Wolff Stadium in the western part of the city. (San Antonio is the largest city in the country, with no baseball team in the AAA league or league.) Every December, the National Student Sports Association holds a playoff match for the Alamo Bowl Cup in the city.
At the beginning of 2011, a club with the same name appeared in San Antonio , playing Gaelic football in the Texas League with teams from Austin, Dallas and Houston. The season lasts from April to the end of August, and every year on the weekend before Labor Day the team takes part in the tournament which is held by the North American branch Gel Athletics Association. The club also has two competing teams, San Patricios and I.C.A (Irish Citizen Army), who are participating in public league matches in the fall.
Alamo City regby clubs are based in San Antonio " and "San Antonio" ", there are also university teams at the University of St. Mary and the University of Texas at San Antonio. The teams of both universities compete in the third division of Texas, administered by the Texas Rugby Union, and are principal rivals in the city and in their division.
At the University of Texas, San Antonio has the only university sports teams in the city known as the UTSA Roadrunners, who are participating in the first league of the National Association of Student Sports in various sports. Not long ago, the U.S. football team appeared at the university, with Larry Coker as the head coach of the Miami University team. The Rodranners began playing in the 2011 season, which ended with a 4-6 result. The team also set attendance records: The first game was attended by 56,743 people, and the average attendance in the first season was 35,521 fans per game. Since 2012, the club has taken part in the games of the Western Sports Conference (Western Athletic Conference), having gained the right to perform in the first league faster than all other teams in the history of student football.
Every year in the city, Alamodome stadium hosts a match of all American football stars among the football teams of the U.S. High School to the U.S. Army Cup, which is broadcast live on NBC. The top 90 players are competing in the West's anti-East match. NFL stars Reggie Bush, Vince Young, Adrian Peterson and many others took part in the match. The city also hosts annually the Valero Alamo Bowl Cup, which is played between Big XII and PAC 12 on the Alamodome Arena.
The municipal authorities of San Antonio have long been working to establish a professional team in the city in the National Football League. Three home games played at the Alamodome stadium by the Saints team showed that the city is able to support the professional football club of the NFL. Former NFL President Paul Tagliabue said that in San Antonio there are all conditions for training and matches, and that is why the city will be included on the list of candidates for the team at the next expansion of the NFL. In the past, the Dallas Covboises and Houston Oilers clubs held in San Antonio collecting before the start of the season, later, the city signed a contract with the Dallas Covbois club, according to which the team is to train in San Antonio throughout 2011. The owner of team Jerry Jones supported the city's aspiration to have its professional team in the NFL. Although it is the second largest city in the US (after Los Angeles), with no professional football team at the NFL, the smaller number of residents in the agglomeration is likely to be the reason for the absence of their NFL, MFL, or NHL teams in San Antonio.
In 2010, the city's first professional soccer team, San Antonio Scorpions, appeared and plays in the North American Football League. The club began playing in the 2012 season and is playing at the Toyota Field.
During the tour of the ring, WWE star Shauna Michaels (now Michael Sean Hickenbott) was announced to be a representative of San Antonio.
Government and Administration
In San Antonio, there is a "council-city manager" system of city self-government. The city is divided into 10 polling stations in order to distribute the population equally for voting. In each district, one person is elected to represent him on the city council. The mayor is elected by city-wide voting. All members of the city council, including the mayor, are elected for two years and cannot be elected for more than 4 terms (the exception being those who were elected in November 2008 — they can only be elected for two terms). Houston and Laredo have the same term limits as San Antonio. According to the laws of Texas, when electing a mayor and city council members, the ballots do not indicate the party affiliation of the candidates. The council members receive US $20 per meeting, while the mayor's annual salary is US $4,000. In addition to administrative activities, most members of the board have other permanent jobs. Julian Castro is the mayor of San Antonio.
The Council employs a city manager who manages the city on a daily basis. The Council acts as the legislative body, while the city governor acts as the head of the executive and is responsible for the administration of the city and for the implementation of the legislative acts of the Council. Sheryl Sculley is currently the city manager.
The municipal-owned CPS Energy company provides electricity and gas services to the city.
San Antonio Police Department (SAPD) is responsible for ensuring security and law and order in the city.
San Antonio Fire Department (SAFD) serves as city fire and emergency medical service.
There are several polling stations in the city for the U.S. Congress elections. In the highest legislative bodies, San Antonio is represented by:
- in the US Senate:
- Ted Cruz (Republican Party)
- John Cornin (Republican Party)
- in the US House of Representatives:
- From 20 polling stations in Texas: Joaquín Castro, Democratic Party
- From 21 polling stations in Texas: Lamar Smith, Republican Party
- From 23 polling stations in Texas: Pete Gallego, Democratic Party
- From 28 polling stations in Texas: Henry Henry Cuellar, Democratic Party
- from 35 electoral districts in Texas: Lloyd Doggett, Democratic Party
- Texas Governor:
- Greg Abbott (Republican Party)
City Development Strategy
Unlike most major US cities, there are several provincial cities around San Antonio that do not have their own system of governance. According to Texas law, San Antonio's extraterritorial jurisdiction extends to most of the surrounding land, which does not belong to any municipality. The city authorities have the right to plan the construction of major highways and to establish and secure the boundaries of land plots. The city continues to pursue an aggressive policy of annexation of territories and prevents the establishment of self-government bodies in other cities under its extraterritorial jurisdiction. Approximately three-quarters of the modern square of San Antonio have been joined to the city since 1960.
Between 2000 and 2010, the city added several long, narrow tracts of land along the main highways along the outskirts to facilitate the subsequent integration of the growing areas along the slopes. By 2009, the city was planning to annex more than 100km2 (40 square miles) of land. In May 2010, San Antonio city authorities agreed to transfer thousands of acres of land along the I-10 federal road under their extraterritorial jurisdiction to Schertz. According to the contract, Schertz transferred a total of 14.11 km2 (3,486 acres) of land north of I-10. These lands, subject to extraterritorial jurisdiction, are bordered by the FM 1518 local road in the west, Lower Seguin Road in the north, Cibolo Creek in the east and I-10 in the south.
In the non-municipal territories of the Behar district, the forced annexation of land is a contentious issue. Residents who were initially attracted by lower taxes and affordable property prices in the periphery now often see land annexation as a mechanism to raise real-estate tax rates (which stem primarily from school taxes rather than municipal taxes). They believe that the tax increases are not accompanied by corresponding improvements in the fire and police services, while the city regards its policy of accession as a prerequisite for urban economic prosperity.
Federal and local representative bodies
Texas Department of Criminal Justice manages the offices of the IV Regional Office for parole at the San Antonio Metro Parole Complex. Regional offices I and III are located in Metro Parole Complex, office II is located elsewhere.
San Antonio is the regional office of the Texas Department of Transportation.
San Antonio's main post office is managed by the U.S. Postal Service. Other post offices are located all over San Antonio.
About 100,000 students attend 31 higher education institutions in San Antonio. Public universities include University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, University of Texas at San Antonio, Texas A&M University-San Antonio, and Alamo Community College District. The largest university in San Antonio is University of Texas at San Antonio.
The city has several private universities, among them Trinity University, St. Mary’s University, Our Lady of the Lake University, University of the Incarnate Word, Baptist University of the Américas, and Wayland Baptist University. The Public Library Network of San Antonio serves students from all universities as well as students from 19 school districts located within the borders of the district of Behar and San Antonio.
The city has more than 30 private and charter schools, including Central Catholic Marianist High School, Incarnate Word High School, Saint Mary’s Hall, The Atonement Academy, Antonian College Preparatory High School, San Antonio Academy, Holy Cross High School, Providence High School, The Carver Academy, Keystone School, TMI — The Episcopal School of Texas, St. Anthony Catholic High School, Lutheran High School of San Antonio and Harmony Science Academy.
The U.S. Air Force General Initial Military Training Center is located in San Antonio. The Air Force has at its disposal the only training center of this type designed for new recruits: 737 Lackland Air Base training team. In addition, the Fort Sam Houston Military Medical Complex's training and mentoring camp provides training for U.S. military medical personnel through 30 different programs. Every year, around 24,000 specialists are produced from the walls of the world's largest medical education center.
San Antonio International Airport (SAT) is located in the Uptown area, about 13 km from the central part of San Antonio. The airport has two terminals that serve 21 airlines on 44 different routes, including six routes to Mexico. Stinson Municipal Airport is 10 km south of the city center. The flight field consists of two runways. The airport is home to the Texas Air Museum.
The city's transport system, which includes bus transportation, is under the control of the city transport management VIA Metropolitan Transit. A monthly full Big Pass ticket, which entitles you to unlimited number of trips in VIA vehicles, costs US$35. In December 2012, VIA began to carry high-speed buses on the VIA Primo route from central San Antonio to the South Texas Medical Center and the main campus of the University of Texas, San Antonio.
In August 2010, VIA Metropolitan Transit introduced a new generation of hybrid (diesel-electric) power-generating buses into the routes. VIA's high-speed routes run 30 hybrid buses that carry passengers daily throughout the city. This line of buses appeared on the city roads after new liquefied natural gas vehicles were brought on the routes in May 2010. In autumn 2010, VIA ordered 3 new buses that run on electricity from batteries built into the vehicle. These buses run downtown, and they are the first lucrative non-exhaust vehicles.
VIA has 89 regular bus routes and two tram routes in the city center. The company's services include high-speed routes from the city center to parks in South Side, West Side, Northwest Side, North Central Side and Northeast Side, as well as to UTSA University, Six Flags Fiesta Texas theme park and SeaWorld water park. During important events in the city, such as the San Antonio Spurs basketball team or the city's parades, VIA organizes special flights from parking centers. VIA is one of the longest local routes in America. Routes 550 (clockwise) and 551 (counterclockwise) are approximately 77 km in one direction.
Amtrak National Railway Passenger Company carries passengers by train from Texas Eagle from the San Antonio Amtrak Station to the Union Station train station in Chicago. Three times a week, a Sunset Limited brand train runs through San Antonio, and runs from Los Angeles to Orlando, Fla. (Hurricane Katrina reduced the route to New Orleans.)
The Texas Eagle route between San Antonio and Los Angeles is part of the Sunset Limited route. The old building of the Sunset Station train station, which belongs to the VIA organization, is now an entertainment platform, close to the new train station and the Alamodome sports complex.
The route from San Antonio to Corpus Christi is serviced by Union Pacific Railroad. In the past, from 1913 to 1956, this direction was in the management of the company "San Antonio, Uvalde and Gulf Railroad". In 1956, SAU&G was taken over by Missouri Pacific Railroad, which then became an integral part of Union Pacific.
After the city's electric train began operating in Phoenix in 2008, San Antonio became America's largest city without an internal urban passenger rail system. The proposed LSTAR project envisages the creation of a railway link between San Antonio and Austin.
The main highways through San Antonio are:
- Federal motorway I-10: part of the McDermott Freeway motorway, which runs on the northwest side of the city, runs west to El Paso, Phoenix, and Los Angeles. Part of the Jose Lopez Freeway runs through the eastern part of the city and leads east through Segouin, Houston, New Orleans to Jacksonville. There's a trakestop.
- Federal motorway I-35: Pan Am Expressway section, which runs through the city from the northeast to the southwest, leads south to Laredo and north through Austin, Dallas Fort Worth, Oklahoma City, Kansas City to Minh neapolis.
- Federal motorway I-37: Lucian Adams Freeway motorway starts in San Antonio from the U.S. interchange. Highway 281 (goes south via Edinburgh and Mak Allen). The road runs on the southeast side of the city, going south from the city, runs near Three Rivers and farther to Corpus Christi, where it connects to the U.S. highway. Highway 77 (going south through Kingsville and Harlingen to Brownsville) and ends near Corpus Christi Bay.
- Federal Highway I-410: The John Connally Ring Road, which locals call simply "Ring Road 410 (four to ten)", is 85 km (53 miles) long. The magistrate is spraying San Antonio in the city.
- Autostrada U.S. 90: part of the Cleto Rodriguez Freeway motorway is located in the western part of the city. The road leaves the city and goes further west through Uvalde and Del Rio to Van Horn, where it ends at the intersection of the I-10 motorway. Before the eastern section of the I-10 road and the western section of the US 90 high-speed road were built in San Antonio, the US 90 was on West Commerce St (east-direction) and Buena Vista St. (westward), and on the old Old Hwy 90 motorway. In the east, the road was built along the East Commerce St to a modern route parallel to the eastern section of the I-10 route to Seguin.
- Autostrada U.S. 281: The northern section of McAllister road runs through Johnson City to Wichita Falls. In the south it coincides with the road I-37, and in 6 km - with the federal highway I-410, and then goes south to Pleasanton. Before the I-37 highway and McAllister Fwy road were built in San Antonio, the US 281 highway in the north was stretched along the San Pedro Ave, and in the south by the Roosevelt Ave.
- Autostrada 151: The Stotzer Freeway runs in the western part of the city. It starts from the US Hwy 90 motorway, passes through the Westover Hills area, where the SeaWorld water park is located and ends on the State Loop 1604 ring road.
- Ring road SL 1604: the length of the Charles W Ring Road. Anderson, which locals call simply "road 1604 (sixteen is zero - four)" - 154 km (96 miles). The motorway runs around San Antonio.
Other roads in San Antonio include:
- Highway U.S. 87: The road through San Antonio runs along the Roland Avenue, Rigsby Avenue and then south to the city of Victoria. In the north, the road coincides with the I-10 motorway (84 km long) and then north through San Angelo.
- Highway U.S. 181: starts at a distance of 0.8 km to the south from the intersection of the I-410/I-37/US 281 motorway and goes towards Corpus Christi through Beeville. Before the I-37 highway was built, the US 181 passed through Presa St. from the city center to the modern highway.
- State Highway 16: goes to San Antonio from Freer, near the city coincides with the I-410 motorway, together they pass through the southwest part of San Antonio about 27 km (17 miles) to the Bandera Road, and then the road goes towards the city of Bandera.
- State Loop 345: Fredericksburg Road bypass from the western part of the I-10 /northern part of US-87.
- State Loop 368: The bypass branch of the northern part of the I-35 motorway, which runs along the Broadway and Austin Highway roads.
- State Loop 353: bypass branch along Nogalitos Street and New Laredo Highway from the southern section of the I-35 highway.
- State Loop 13: an internal ring road that runs through the southern part of the city past Luckland Air Force Base, Port San Antonio, South Park Mall and Brooks City Base. In the south, the road runs along Military Dr. and in the east along WW White Rd to the intersection point with the I-35/I-410 motorways. The northern arc of the road is the I-410.
San Antonio has approximately 219 km (136 miles) of bicycle lanes, routes and cycle paths. Bicycle routes along the San Antonio River, man-made greenery and urban parks run through the rugged terrain. Although most of these roads are unconnected, progress in building bicycle-friendly urban infrastructure has been confirmed by America's Cycling League, which has given San Antonio "a bronze level of a bicycle-friendly settlement."
On June 17, 2010, the city council approved the work plan for a new type of transport service, bicycle rental. Initially, it was planned that there would be 140 bicycles in the "central site" and 14 rental points. The service is available to both local residents and guests of the city. San Antonio Bike Share, a non-profit organization, was established to oversee the terms of this service, which will be locally organized and supported by Bike World. B-Cycle, similar to Denver, will serve the bike rental system. The system was launched in March 2011.
Easy for pedestrians
According to a 2011 Walk Score study, San Antonio is ranked 40th in America's 50 largest cities, according to pedestrian accessibility to most residential and social facilities.
Media and entertainment
San Antonio has the only major newspaper San Antonio Express-News, which has been published in the city since 1865. Robert Rivard, currently Executive Vice President and Editor of the newspaper, was appointed as Managing Editor in 1994 and became Editor-in-Chief in 1997. Express-News is now considered the largest newspaper in the southern Texas state. Hearst Corporation, which owned the second major newspaper San Antonio Light, purchased the Express-News newspaper from News Corp in 1992 and closed the Light newspaper after unsuccessful attempts to find a buyer for it.
Under the Express-News trademark, Hearst Corporation publishes a weekly magazine called Conexion, which is staffed exclusively by Hispanic employees who cover events taking place in the Latin American community. The weekly free "alternative" newspaper San Antonio Current covers political news, events in the cultural and public life of the city, provides feedback and opinions about local restaurants and describes upcoming events in the cultural and club life of the city. In addition, the San Antonio Business Journal covers the main news in the business world. The bilingual edition La Prensa has a long history in the city. San Antonio River Walk Current is a weekly newspaper about important events and famous people of San Antonio.
About 50 radio stations are broadcast in San Antonio, 30 of which are in the city itself. It is the headquarters of Clear Channel Communications, the largest radio broadcasting holding in the United States. The leading news radio station of WOAI AM-1200 is considered one of the best in the country. The KTSA AM-550 became the first radio station to be broadcast in southern Texas in 1922. One of the most famous local talk shows on KTSA AM-550 radio is Jack Riccardi, Trey Ware, and Ricci Ware.
There are three radio stations in the city that belong to the National Public Broadcasting Network and belong to Texas Public Radio: KSTX 89.1 FM broadcasts in news/talk show format, KPAC 88.3 24-hour broadcasts classical music, and KTXI 90.1 broadcasts in Central West Texas in Hill County, The program combines various talk shows, news programs and classical music. KSTX also broadcasts "Riverwalk Jazz," a radio production featuring Jim Cullum Jazz Band, a local band that has been playing at The Landing Club in River Walk since 1963.
KRTU 91.7, a non-profit radio station, broadcasts from Trinity University walls. Unlike the rest of the country's university radio stations, it broadcasts jazz-style compositions 17 hours a day and rock/indie rock-style compositions at night. On the air of alternative radio station KSYM, 90.1 FM, which belongs to the organization Alamo Community College District, students from San Antonio College work. Like KRTU, it broadcasts non-commercial music from the Third Coast Music Network during the day and alternative music at night.
Most Hispanic radio stations broadcast performers' compositions in regional styles and Mexican music trends, either teano or modern pop music. On January 12, 2006, the KCOR-FM radio station "La Kalle 95.1", owned by the telecommunications company Univision, changed its format. Instead of the format "modern energetic Latin American hits", the radio station began broadcasting Latin American songs, popular between 1980 and 1990, and was renamed "Recuerdo 95.1". On November 10, 2006, Univision announced that it was changing the format of the KLTO 97.7 radio station from tegano to reggeton, in an attempt to reintroduce the people of San Antonio to this style of music. Soon, the format of radio station 97.7 was changed to rock. The station no longer broadcasts compositions in English and, while still in Univision's possession, broadcasts music works by artists such as Linkin Park.
After a year of work in the format "popular 80 and 90", KCOR-FM radio was renamed back to "La Kalle" and its format changed to "modern hits". In the same year, but a little earlier, KLTO 95.1 changed its owner and began broadcasting in the same format ("tekan") with KXTN radio station 107.5. In recent years, San Antonio's radio broadcasting has become increasingly diverse, owing to the strong influence of Latin Americans who came to San Antonio from other regions. Most of them are from the U.S. East Coast, serving at numerous military bases in the city, and immigrants from Mexico. As a result, in San Antonio, as in the rest of the country, the companies that own the radio stations are changing their radio formats in response to demographic changes.
Although the size of the city and the agglomeration is relatively large, the television market in San Antonio was never considered large. According to a marketing study conducted by ACNielsen, he is currently ranked 36th in the United States. By comparison, the other two cities in Texas, Houston and Dallas, with a population of more than a million, have one of the 10 largest television services markets in the country. The main reason is that the surrounding suburban and rural areas do not exceed the size of the city itself. And, in the case of San Antonio, Austin's proximity reduces the potential volume of the market.
The following television channels are broadcast in San Antonio: WOAI Channel 4 (NBC), KSAT Channel 12 (ABC), KENS Channel 5 (CBS), KABB Channel 29 (Fox Broadcasting Company), KCWX Channel 2 (myNetworkTV), KMYS 3 Channel 35 (The CW) and KLRN channel 9 (PBS). The city has 6 Spanish-language TV channels, three religious channels, three independent channels and one Internet TV channel (210 TV). Cable television accounts for 65% of the television market in San Antonio.
- Monterrey (1953)
- Guadalajara (1974)
- Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (1975)
- Kwangju (1981)
- Gaoxiong (1981)
- Santa Cruz de Tenerife (1983)
- Kumamoto (1987)
- Chennai (2008)
- Uxi (2012)
- Windhoek (2016)
- Darmstadt (2017)
- Suzhou (2010)
- Tel Aviv (2011)
- ↑ When calculating population density, only the land area of the city was 1193.98 km².
- ↑ San Antonio // Dictionary of geographical names of foreign countries / ed. A. M. Komkov. — 3rd edition, overwork and additional — M. : Nedra, 1986. P. 315.
- ↑ San Antonio: The City of St. Anthony (English). t. Anthony Messenger Magazine Online. franciscanmedia.org (June 2004). Case date: October 29, 2019.
- ↑ 1 2 3 SAN ANTONIO DE VALERO MISSION (HTML). Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Case date: June 23, 2017.
- ↑ Martin de Alarcon (HTML). Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Case date: June 23, 2017.
- ↑ 1 2 The Canary Islanders (HTML). Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Case date: June 23, 2017.
- ↑ John H. Jenkins, ed., Papers of the Texas Revolution (10 vols.; Austin: Presidial Press, 973),13
- ↑ 1 2 John H. Jenkins, ed., Papers of the Texas Revolution (10 vols.; Austin: Presidial Press, 973),13
- ↑ Gonzalez, Juan. Harvest of Empire. Penguin, 2000.
- ↑ Fisher, Lewis F. Saving San Antonio: precarious preservation of a heritage. - Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press , 1996.
- ↑ A Journey Through Texas, by Frederick Olmstead ISBN 978-1-144-80380-1
- ↑ Saving San Antonio by Lewis F. Fisher ISBN 978-0-89672-372-6
- ↑ 1 2 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010. Sna Antonio city, Texas (unavailable link). U.S. Census Bureau. Case date: October 29, 2019. Archived February 13, 2020.
- ↑ The Roles of Geography and Climate in Forecasting Weather in South Texas (English). Theweatherprediction.com. Case date: October 29, 2019.
- ↑ http://www.srh.noaa.gov/images/ewx/sat/satclisum.pdf
- ↑ File:Climatemapusa2.PNG
- ↑ 1 2 3 San Antonio Climate Summary (English) (PDF). National Weather Service. Case date: October 29, 2019.
- ↑ San Antonio Suffers Worst Snowfall. Schenectady Gazette, via Google News (January 12, 1985).
- ↑ San Antonio, Texas "One of the most flood-prone regions in North America".
- ↑ South Central Texas June 30-July 7, 2002, Flood Safety Education Project.
- ↑ Tornado rakes S.A. fav. Case date: October 29, 2019.
- ↑ San Antonio Bexar County Texas Tornado 1953 (English). Case date: October 29, 2019.
- ↑ MONTHLY/ANNUAL/AVERAGE PRECIPITATION SAN ANTONIO, TX (1871-2010) (PDF). National Weather Service. Case date: June 3, 2012. Archived July 19, 2013.
- ↑ Census 2000: Incorporated Places of 100,000 or More, Ranked by Population, U.S. Census Bureau.
- ↑ Census 2000: Metropolitan Areas Ranked by Population, U.S. Census Bureau.
- ↑ San Antonio city, Texas — Fact Sheet — American FactFinder (not available link). Case date: November 12, 2009. Archived February 11, 2020.
- ↑ San Antonio city, Texas — ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2005-2007 (not available link). Case date: November 12, 2009. Archived February 11, 2020.
- ↑ US Bureau of Economic Analysis, http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/regional/gdp_metro/2011b/pdf/gdp_metro0211b.pdf
- ↑ Welcome to the City of San Antonio Economic Development Department-Index. Sanantonio.gov. Case date: June 30, 2010.
- ↑ Fortune 500 2009: States: Texas Companies, CNN. Date of appeal 23 May 2010.
- ↑ America's Largest Private Companies, Forbes.com (October 28, 2009). Date of appeal 30 June 2010.
- ↑ Nowlin, Sanford. "Aquila bids for sale or merger." San Antonio Express-News. March 11, 1998. Business 1E. Published in: Polishuk, Paul. Utilities Telecommunications News. Information Gatekeepers Inc. 8-9. Retrieved from Google Books on July 21, 2010. ISSN 1079—2937.
- ↑ Yves Gerem. A Marmac Guide to San Antonio (2001) p. 246-247 ISBN 978-1-4556-0854-6
- ↑ Welcome to the 2009 U.S. Army All American Bowl. Usarmyallamericanbowl.com. Case date: June 30, 2010.
- ↑ City of San Antonio | Official Web Site - City Council. Sanantonio.gov. Case date: June 30, 2010.
- ↑ City Of San Antonio
- ↑ Texas Local Government Code section 212.003, Extension of Rules to Extraterritorial Jurisdiction
- ↑ Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Boundary (PDF), City of San Antonio Planning Department. July 28, 2006.
- ↑ San Antonio Master Plan, Public Studio (San Antonio Chapter American Institute of Architects). Retrieved January 7, 2007.
- ↑ San Antonio Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities (PowerPoint), City of San Antonio Planning Department. Retrieved January 7, 2007.
- ↑ Three-year annexation plan (PDF), City of San Antonio Planning Department, January 6, 2006.
- ↑ San Antonio agrees to release ETJ to Schertz
- ↑ "San Antonio District Office." Texas Department of Transportation. Retrieved on January 11, 2010.
- ↑ Bexar County School Districts. bexar.org. Case date: October 29, 2019.
- ↑ VIA Primo www.viabrt.net
- ↑ Clean and comfy ride mysanantonio.com. Case date: October 29, 2019.
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- ↑ VIA Metropolitan Transit.
- ↑ Routes - California. Amtrak. Case date: June 30, 2010.
- ↑ Sunset Station San Antonio near the Convention Center, Alamo and River Walk Hotels. Sunset-station.com. Case date: June 30, 2010.
- ↑ Nancy Beck Young. San Antonio, Uvalde and Gulf Railroad Company (HTML). Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Case date: June 23, 2017.
- ↑ Hugh Hemphill, "San Antonio Uvalde and Gulf Railroad. txtransportationmuseum.org. Case date: April 28, 2013.
- ↑ Lone Star Rail District www.lonestarrail.com
- ↑ Department of traffic planning. "Road Information Loop No. 345". Texas Department of Transport.
- ↑ Department of traffic planning. "Road Information Loop No. 368". Texas Department of Transport.
- ↑ Department of traffic planning. "Road Information Loop No. 353". Texas Department of Transport.
- ↑ City of San Antonio | Official Web Site - San Antonio Bikes
- ↑ Alamo City named bike-friendly city — San Antonio Business Journal
- ↑ News Release - Bike Share Program (not available link). Case date: December 10, 2013. Archived June 17, 2011.
- ↑ Bicycling proposals gear up
- ↑ 2011 City and Neighborhood Rankings. Walk Score (2011). Case date: August 28, 2011.
- ↑ Designated Market Areas Backup dated May 17, 2006 at the Wayback Machine, Nielsen Media Research.